Rag pickers pick up rag and other waste material from the streets refuse heaps etc for a livelihood.
- Chotu had run away from his home not able to take his beating. Ramu was driven away from by his step mother.Irfan and Munna did not know when they found themselves on the pavements.
- They were abandoned children and earning livelihood with small work. The old municipal sweeper was kind to them.
- Chotu discovered an infant inside the garbage bin.
- Female infant had been treated as a burden by their parents. So it was left in a dustbin.
- They quickly wrapped it up in the old newspaper lying about. They emptied their sack and they put it in the bundle.
- They had walked past a small temple on their way to the shed in the old city.
- To wash off the accumulated sins at the feet of their gods or feeling sure that their prayers would be answered, or just feeling happy that their attendance for the day is duly recorded.
- The rules of beggars are if a beggar falls ill or is unable to make it for a day or two only his or her spouse or children take the place. No other beggar is allowed to usurp the place. The beggar doesn’t have a son. He bent onto adopt Ramu so that his place would not be occupied by other.
- Chotu bought few incense sticks and some flowers.
- Once they were inside the shed, they had chosen a corner in the shed and dig a small pit. They carried her gently wrapped in a big enough rage. They put her in the pit and filled it up, put the flowers on top and then lighted incense sticks.
- This story expounds the kind heartedness of poorboys, in contrast with some of the more prosperous members of the society. It sends message to the people that the true essence of religion is not in the ritualistic acts but in our true act.
Look at Language: Writing style.(Page no: 11)
- He carefully separated the things around the object, standing on his toes, bending into the bin.(loose sentence)
- Once they were inside the shed, Ramu unwrapped the newspaper(periodic sentence).
Looking at language: Writing style(page no: 12)
- Expression of Sympathy- ‘Take what you want but don’t scatter the garbage’- Old Muncipal sweeper.
- Expression of Satire: They look satisfied with themselves after washing off the accumulated sins.
- Expression of empathy: ‘All the four boys kneeled beside the pit. They put her in the pit and filled it up in the flowers.’
Looking at Language: Regional Flavour.(page no:12 and 13)
· Intermix the local words and expressions in English stories and novels would bring out culture and tradition of the place.
· It creates the sense of regionalism in readers mind.
· it rises interest in reader as it is related to their surroundings.
· As it is very easy to understand, the reader gets involve in the story and it is also easy to the writer to communicate with his readers.
Regional words that are used in an African story, titled ‘The Power of a Plate of Rice’ are- a pot of ogbono, yam, garri(west African dish made from cassava tubers), egusi (melon)
The above given are the reasons that made the writer intersperse Sanskrit /Hindi words with English.
Looking at language: Vocabulary by theme (Page no: 13)
- drawn together, taking rest, dustbin, waste things.
- dragging, gunny bags
- swarm, well covered.
Literary concept: Theme(Page no:14,15,16)
1. The phrase morning Bells signifies the start of new life. Here it symbolize the empathetic feeling of the boys. They had choosen a corner in the shed and digged a pit which was deep enough.They put here in the pit and filled it up, put the flowers on the top and then lighted the incense sticks. They had taken her as their own. The phrase ‘ morning bells’ is a powerful symbol of something that is empathetic and deplorable.
2. Food, cloth, shelter are the basic necessities for people. The centre characters of this story are Chotu, Ramu, Irfan and Munna are struggling for survival in this world. Their struggle for survival brought the boys together and made them to work together.
3. A man who had been practicing female infanticide and who had given subordinate status to women would have abandoned the infant in the garbage bin. Female infanticides, Satisahagamanam were some of the regressive traditions that were practiced in India. The man who left the baby in garbage bin would have come under this regressive tradition.
4. The empathetic nature of Chotu and Ramu prompted to take out the body of the infant out of the garbage bin and give it an honest burial in the shed.
5. The beggars have their fixed territories . No new entrant is allowed in the precincts without the consent of the congregation.
6. Ramu, Chotu, Irfan, and Munna had treated the abandoned infant as one of the members in the family and so they had choosen a corner in the shed to bury her and named her ‘Chutki’.
Culture Point: Female Infanticide.(page -17)
We need to recognize that there is something fundamentally wrong with a culture that assumes the superiority of males and that celebrates Indian women for being meek, submissive and sacrificial. The feeling of superiority which evolved from our culture proved to be a big evil in our society and also it is one of the important causes behind the heinous practice of sex-selective abortions and female infanticide. Women are given subordinate status in society. She is treated as a big burden to family. Her life is spared; parents often neglect her and expect her to work around the house serving her brothers and father. In rural areas, girls are rarely sent to school, and if they are, they are removed after a few years of education. They try to kill the baby by adopting various means strangling the baby, giving her poison, dumping her in a garbage bin.
Culture point: Hypocrisy(page -18)
- Hypocritical show of religion: People enter temple to wash of their accumulated sins at the feet of their gods, or to feel sure that their prayers would be answered.
Example for the true essence of religion: Ramu, chotu, Irfan, and Munna are known for the true essence of relgion. Inspite of being poor and abandoned they tried to help a small one who was thrown in a garbage bin.
Culture Point: Economy (Page – 18)
- Economic activities that are promoted at a temple: Flowers, incense sticks and the other things that the temple goers need to worship are sold near temple steps.
- Many of the people show their gratitude by showering benevolence on the row of beggars seated outside the temple. The beggars have their own fixed territories outside the temple. The more aggressive ones occupy the place closer to the main entrance and get a large portion of the ‘total collection’.
Culture point: Beggary(page -18, 19)
- A dark hefty one legged man had no one to look after him. If he adopts Ramu, Ramu can occupy his place and whenever he feels like taking a break , he could sent Ramu to work in his place.
Culture Point: Abandoned Children (page- 19,20)
- True essence of religion is clearly pictured in the activity of four boys. They are poor and abandoned. They earn their lively with the waste materials that they collect from garbage bin. One day, they found a small baby in a garbage bin. It eyes were closed as if it was sleeping peacefully in its mother’s gentle lap and not in the stinking bin.They quickly wrapped it up in the old newspaper and brought it to their shed. They chose a corner in the shed and dig a pit for her. They put her in the pit and filled it up with the flowers and incense sticks. They named her Chutky. They had given a place in their shed and treated her as one of the members in their family.
This small activity of boys proves that the boys are nearer to God but not the temple goers who go to the temple to wash off their accumulated sins.
Reading Journal (page no- 20)
Chutky is a name of a small baby. Chutky was the name given by the four boys who found her in a garbage bin. She was picked up by the boys who were earning their lively hood with the waste materials that they collect from the garbage bin. They wrapped her carefully in a newspaper and carried her to their house. Usually the four boys return from their journey to the city dump yard with their sacks after the sun is up but that day they decided to turn up quickly to their shed. They walked past the temple teeming with well clad temple goers who gather their to wash off their accumulated sins at the feet of the gods. The four boys took their coins from their pockets and bought the flowers and incense sticks that were sold near the temple steps. They chose a corner in their own shed and buried it. They decorated the pit with flowers and lighted incense sticks. They prayed to the God for few minutes for that small baby.
This story is a clear example for the true essence of religion. The four boys who were poor and abandoned were very near to God. They had taken the responsibility of a small baby who was thrown in a garbage bin without the feeling of sympathy. This proves that the true essence of religion is not in hypocritical nature of temple goers but in the innocence of small children.
The power of the Plate of Rice
- The opening part of the story has taken place in Mr.Aziza’s office room.
- The office of the Principal, Mr.Aziza was not well designed. Mr.Aziza was seated behind a medium-sized desk made of cheap wood and thickly coated with varnish. Books, files, letter trays and loose sheets of paper fostled for a place in the desk.
- Teachers were not paid salaries properly.
- Mr.Aziza had ingratiated himself with the powerful and highranking officers of the Board. As he was the principal of one of the elite schools in the state, he used his power to oblige the people in high places.
- Mr.Aziza has a negative opinion on the women teachers. He refuses to take women , especially married ones in his school. It is the opinion of him that they are lazy and find excuses to be away from school.
- When she reached home, she found her son was suffering from fever. Her mother –in – law was trying hard to bring down the temperature of her grand son.
- Mrs. Cheta Adu’s life had become miserable without her husband. It was the endless journey into the land of hardship and frustration. She needs strong finance support. In such hard circumstances, she felt that it was a senseless waste to spent all their savings on burial ceremony.
- They were at the university together. Mrs.Cheta Adu selected mathematics and her husband selected banking. They were posted to the same state for national youth service. They became engaged at the end of their service and married shortly after.
- To feed her family and to satisfy the basic necessities of her family.
- Cheta begs Mr.Aziza for the better part month , imploring him for money and food but when proves obdurate she reduced to following him after work. When she is still neglected, she has eaten the dish kept for him.
- Mr.Aziza strode the table, and snatched spoon from her hand . He barked her to go to the Brusar and take money.
- The plate of rice has acted as a weapon to make Mr.Aziza agree to pay her salary.
Looking at Language: Writing style.
The story reveals the abject condition of an American woman teacher, who has not been paid her salary for four months. Inspite of many requests, Mr.Aziza has not agreed to pay salary. It mounts tension in the readers mind. But a feeling of relief arises when Mrs.Chetu took a drastic decision to persuade him and not to leave him until he pay salary. She ate the rice that was prepared for Mr.Aziza. She irritated him and created tension in his mind that she would get settle in his house with her children if she was not paid salary.
Looking at Language: Vocabulary by Theme(page no: 40)
2. Bubbled like a pot of ogbono, bellowed, strode, smouldering.
3. Mottled(para-2), Smouldering- para -3 , bulbous – para-6, hitched – para-11.
Looking at Language: Vocabulary by Idiom(page 41, 42)
- peace is costly but it is worth the expense.
- Don’t set sail on someone else’s star.
Literary Concept: Theme.(Page – 42)
- He is a man known for his inflexibility. He withholds ChetuAdu’s salary as she has taken a few days off to tend to her sick child at hospital. Matters are desperate. She is in dire need of money but Mr.Aziza proved himself obdurate.
- He has been suffering from fever since one month.
- It is not just imagination. It really happens in day-to-day world. The common people are often denied their rights and can do nothing about it. The bureaucracy has undue power, which they abuse without accountability.
- When man has no other choice to escape from his troubles, he tries to take drastic decisions out of desperation. Same happened in this story. Mrs Cheta Adu’s desperation had given her courage which she never experienced before.
- It is an unplanned action. Her circumstances made her to follow him home after work .
Culture point: Universal and Local(page- 45)
1 a.She resorted to a tactic when she was refused by Mr. Aziza to take her into his office. She kept on calling to him until he broke his resistance.
b. she had taken a courageous step in to bring change in Mr. Aziza she followed him to his house and had eaten rice that was kept for him.
2. a pot of ogbono soup- seed of a wild mango, joll of rice, garri- West African dish, egusi soup- melon soup are some of the words used in the narration.
Some other examples are:
Kunu or millet porridge.
Ogi or maize pop.
Akara – also called beans cake
- Rapula, Dulue.
- It is not a kind of punishment but it is one of the ways of keeping the child safe.
- Chetu Adu and her mother-in-law are the two women. They are looking after the baby who is suffering from fever.
- It is not merely personal activity. It is the voice of a professional woman whose life is hard in a partriarchal society where men openly voice their reluctance to an employee woman.
Literary Concepts: Symbolism.
- The plate of rice acted as a weapon on the principal, Mr. Aziza. It is symbol for her audacity, courage and master stroke.
Literary Concepts: Strife and Victory.(page-48,49)
- She would not have done the same thing if she had no family. She would have waited for salary for one more month. Her family gave her responsibilities. She had taken drastic step to satisfy her basic necessities.
- The bias that Mr.Aziza carries against married women is that women try to find excuses to be away from school. But it is not genuine. Women are sincere in their work. They take responsibility to their heart and they strive for it. The traditions and customs cripple women as much as they can and trying to create women as an unjustified person.
- It is the general fate of the most of the widows. Once the woman loose her husband, she becomes the sole bread winner in her family.In this lesson, Mrs Chetu Adu lost her husband in an accident. It is a big tragic turning point in her life. She is the bread winner of her family. She is working in Mr.Aziza’s school not for time pass but to meet the basic necessities of her family.
There is a fundamental wrong in our general mental outlook. Most of the people assumes the superiority of males and consider women as a meek, submissive and sacrificial. The feeling of superiority which evolved from ourselves is a big evil in our society. A woman is given a subordinate position in her family as well as society. Her parents neglect her. They try to get rid of her by doing marriage.
In this story, Mr.Aziza has such an attitude towards women. He feels that most of the married women always find excuses from work and they come for work only for time pass. Having this opinion in his mind, he tried to torture Mrs Chetu Adu. Being brave and resourceful, Mrs Chetu Adu resorted to a tactic which made him to give her her salary.
FAMADIHANA AND OTHER RITUALS
Understanding the text: Main ideas (page- 67)
1. Madagascar is an island located in the Indian Ocean; it is 400km from the East of Africa past Mozambique Channel, 1300km from the equator and 7000km from the South Pole. The Tropic of Capricorn crosses its southern part. The area is approximately 597000 square kilometers.
2 In the early 19th century the majority of the island was united and it was ruled as the kingdom of Madagascar by a series of nobles.
3. When a child is about to be circumcised, all close relatives and friends are invited, a big feast is prepared, and people party at night.
4. Families in Madagascar have their own Tombstone that their ancestors had built. These tombstones are huge, very spacious and well decorated with many stone-beds that can accommodate the dead bodies of generations after generations. The dead are described as ‘Gods on Earth’
6It reaffirms the link between dead and the living.
7. A large number of relatives, guests including the spirits of ancestors are invited to a feast given by members of a family or lineage. So it is considered as a family reunion.
8. For five years.
9. The tomb offer an insight into the rich culture of Madagascar. These are fine examples of rich historical tradition of the country. So these tombs have become popular tourist attractions.
10. South Western Corner.
11. Fady are taboos(considered unacceptable or improper by community) on the use of certain substances.
12. The supremacy of Christianity in the central highlands led to the demise of idol worship. Christians have their dead blessed at a church before burying them and invite the pastor to attend a famidihana and place a cross on top of the tomb. Christians argue that the dead have become Christians themselves and continue to be the arbiters of right and wrong.
Looking at Language: Writing Style (page -70)
1. Engagement was the actual wedding for the Malagasy couple. They celebrate it grandly.
2. Another example of Malagasy traditions and customs is circumsion. When a child is about to be circumcised, all close relatives and friends invited, a big feast is prepared.
3. Famidihana is another rich tradition which reaffirms the link between the living and dead.
1. To deny hospitality to a stranger is a fady or taboo, as is the act of refusing this hospitality,
2. It is wrong to stir in the doorway of a house while the rice is sprouting, since the door of the house is compared to the ‘gateway’ of birth and by blocking it, one might impede the birth of rice.
Looking at Language: Vocabulary by theme(page- 71)
Famidihana, razana, velona iray tranto, maty iray fasana, Zanahary, Andriamanitra, ombiasy, mpanandro, Vintana, fady,
Literary Concept: Theme.(page – 71,72,73)
1. The people of Madagascar originated from Indonesia, Malaysia, Polynesia and Eastern Africa. The island of Madagascar was divided into many parts and of many types. In the early 19th century, the majority of the island was united and it was ruled as the kingdom of Madagascar by a series of nobles of the Merina ethnic group. It collapsed when the island was conquered and absorbed into the French colonial empire in 1896, and it gained independence in 1960.
2. Malagas is the name of the people who live in Madagascar. Malagasy is also the name of the national and official language. The population of Madagascar constituted in 18 ethic groups who lives in 22 regions.
3. There is no particular age for enagements. Engagement in Madagascar is done with a big celebration in front of relatives and friends from both sides. During the celebration, close relatives from both sides are invited, the groom to be brings a gift for the future bride’s parent as an honour and thanks for raising a beautiful daughter, and the engagement ring for the bride to be.
4. They play the role of intermediary between the supreme god and humankind,and are viewed as having the power to affect the fortunes of the living for good and evil.
5. The supremacy of Christianiy in the central highlands led to the demise of idol worship. The Christian belief in the power of transcendent and somewhat distant. God has blended with older beliefs in the closeness and intimacy of the dead as spiritual beings.
Culture Point: Famidihana (16,17,18,19,20)
1. On the day of Famadihana the tombs are opened and the bodies are carried out from the tombs. They are rolled up in new mats. As soon as the body is taken out, men stay outside the tomb and dances around the tombs. When the dance stops, the body is laid on the floor. Members of the family of the deceased surround the body and they washes and provides new clothes to the dead. They offer gifts to the deceased. Laughter mingles with tears of joy and sorrow on this occasion. It also involves moving the bones of the dead buried outside the family tomb into the ancestors tomb.
Culture Point: Fady(page- 74)
1. To deny hospitality to a stranger is a fady, as is the act of refusing the hospitality.
2. It is wrong to stir in the doorway of a house while the rice is sprouting, since the door of the house is compared to the gateway of birth.
Culture Point: Space and Time( page -74)
1. Different values and different forces, either active or passive are attributed to each fraction of time. They believe East being superior to West and North being superior to South. North East is believed to be the most favourable direction. People build their houses on the North South axis and reserve the North Eastr corner for prayers.
Culture Point: Non Fiction(page – 75)
1. There are certain facts which can be taken forgranted. One such is engagement in Madagascar and the other is circumsion. But Famidihana is an unusual tradition practiced in Madagascar. There is no corroboration for this unusual fact. So it is difficult to believe this practice of Malagasy.
Literary Concept: Theme(page – 76)
1. It covers the unusual tradition that is practiced by Malagasies and it also brings into light rituals and traditions that are shared in our country.
Literary Concept: Metaphor(page – 77)
1. Metaphor is a phrase applied to something to which it is not literally applicable, but suggest resemblance. The concept of Fady often expresses metaphorical sense. According to one fady it is wrong to sit in the doorway of a house while the rice is sprouting. The doorway of a house is no way connected with the rice that is sprouting but it is compared to the ‘gateway of birth’ and by blocking it , one might impede the ‘birth’ of the rice.
1. Madagascar is an island located in the Indian Ocean. The capital city of Madagascar is Antannarivo. It’s important trade harbours are Tamatove and Majunga. The island gained its independence in 1960 from French. It has 18 ethinic groups who live in 22 regions. Malagasy is the name of the people who live in Madagascar.
Most of the beliefs in Madagascar fit with the local customs. Some of the beliefs are - When two people are in love or ready to move onto marriage, they must first get engaged. Engagement was the actual wedding for the Malagasy people. Another example of the Malagasy tradition and custom is circumcision. When a child is about to be circumcised, all close relatives and friends are invited, a big feast is prepared, and people party all night. At dawn, the child is taken to a hospital to be circumcised.
Another Malagasy tradition is the way people are buried. Families in Madagascar have their own tombstone. These tombstones are huge, very spacious and well-decorated. A dead person of Malagasy should be buried in his or her family tomb. This ceremony is called Famidihana.
Understanding the text: Main ideas (page no – 93, 94, 95)
1. To inform him about his suicidal tendency.
2. Mary had left him and he had also quit his job.
3. Doug was irritated continuously with unending questions by Govinda.
4. To stop Doug from his suicidal attempt, the suicidal section used confrontational therapy.
5. Doug was bent on committing suicide but his soul did not accept his decision and so he stepped back unknowingly when a rock sailed down.
6. Black mood – State of frustration and disappointment. Turn Red – angry, annoyed. Mood of disappointment and frustration turned to angry.
7. Doug’s mood turned red when he was continuously irritated by Govinda.
8. A kind of ill feeling developed between the cricket lovers of Australia and India. The ill feeling that developed between the two countries’s made Doug critical of India and Indians.
9. Straight shooting- loyal, frank and honest. Straight bribing – disloyal, cunning cheating others.
10. Sergeant Govinda engaged Doug in his hostile talk and succeeded in changing Doug’s intention of committing suicide.
11. confrontational therapy as
12. Sergeant used confrontational therapy to stop Govinda from his attempt. So he can be credited for the success of confrontational therapy.
Looking at Language : Writing style(page no – 96)
If the fact about confrontational therapy had been revealed in the beginning of the story then it would not create any kind of suspense and even the readers would not enjoy the lesson. We expect exiting and new ideas in every reading of ours and the narrator of this story left no stone unturned in creating suspense.
Vocabulary by theme (page no – 97)
Doug snarled, black mood turned red, Doug glared, Doug sighed are some of the expressions in the story which reflect Doug’s gloomy mental state.
1. I am about to throw myself over the cliff and all you care about are your files.
2. I am going to jump now, right now, and on your head be it.
3. No, hell. I live in hell.
The above are some of the sentences which reflect gloomy mental state of Doug’s.
Vocabulary by Emotion: (Page: 98)
1. Worried anxiety. 2. Angry 3. Relaxed 4. Annoyed 5. Disappoint 6. Annoyed 7. Satirical 8. Provoking 9. Aggressive.
Literary Concept: Theme. (Page no: 99)
1. Doug Wood is bent on committing suicide because Mary had left him and he had also quit his job. But his self conscious is eagerly waiting for support and reassurance and it made Doug to convey his intention of committing suicide to the police.
2. ‘Lover’s Leap, Sunshine Coast’ was the address given by Doug to sergeant. But sergeant Govinda didn’t find his address. It created doubt in Doug’s mind whether Govinda was a policeman or anything. His black mood turned red. He forgot about his depression and made his conversation more hostile. This part of their conversation proved to be the turning point.
3. To bring Doug Wood from his suicidal tendencies, sergeant Govinda pretended to be Govinda of Poona.
4. As a part of confrontational therapy, Govinda raised hostile talk between Dougwood and him. So that Dougwood would get angry on him and turn back to take revenge on him.
5. There is a kind of behavioral disorder in Doug. He decided to commit suicide when Mary had left him and he even quit his job in a state of frustration and disappointment. But when he heard a word of insult on Ozzie cricket, he couldn’t control himself. He had given secondary place to Mary and his job and decided to take revenge on sergeant.
Cultural Point: Univeral and Local. (page no:100,101,102)
1. Confrontation that was brought by Govinda between him and Dougwood was the first and the foremost reason.
2. If there had been straight talk on the issue, he would not have agreed to get back from committing suicide. There sympathy would create more and more frustration in him and it would give courage to take drastic decision.
3. Ill feeling between Indian cricketers and Australians made Govinda to use it as a topic to bring confrontation.
4. Suicide is a heinous crime in any civilized country. A suicide person may not ask for help but that doesn’t mean help is not wanted. Through understanding, reassurance and support one can help ones’ loved one to overcome thoughts of suicide.
Suicide prevention is a collective effort of Local Citizen Organizations, Mental Health Practitioners and related professional and so the government agencies should be entrusted with the task of social policing.
Literary concepts: Satire.(Page no: 103).
1. The vices of society and individual have been satirized in Dial 000. This short story is a stinging satire on the mechanical modern life, racial and regional bias, call centre culture, and ill feeling between the cricket lovers of Australia and India. These issues affect the feeling of readers. This attempt may bring minimum changes in reader state of affairs and never allow any kind of suicidal tendency even in a state of gloominess.
Literary Concepts: Irony (page: 104)
1.It is just an example of irony. Govinda’s intention was to stop Doug from committing suicide. So he engaged Doug in a hostile talk and tried to bring confrontation with his utterances.
Some more examples of irony in this lesson –
‘ You and who’s eleven ?Before and after your jump.’
‘What number hell, sir?’
‘Press one for suicide, two for assault…’
Literary Concepts: Assonance (Page: 104,105)
1. ‘Would as in could’ is a close repetition of identical vowel sounds. Hence, we can say it as a clear example of assonance.
1. Doug was bent on committing suicide but that doesn’t mean help is not wanted. His sould would have been eagerly waiting for suppot and assurance. This made him to call police but not to seek attention of the world.
2. One would come across similar end in the short story ‘An Astrologer’s day by R.K.Narayana. One of the important characters in ‘Astrologer’s day’ was an Astrologer. He would sit under the boughs of a spreading tamarind tree which flanked a running through the Town Hall Park. His sharp abnormal eyes search continuously for customers. He had a working analysis of mankind’s trouble, marriage, money, and the tangle of human ties. Long practice had sharpened his perception. One day, he was challenged by a customer. He was ready to give coins what astrologer demanded but astrologer had to return double coins if the customer would not get convinced. Astrologer muttered in the beginning but later he accepted his challenge. He convinced the customer that he would face a great danger if he would move again from home. He said that he would live hundred if he would not travel south word again. The customer was convinced with his words and left that place. Later astrologer told his wife that he escaped a great danger. When he was in village he drank, gambled, and quarreled badly with a man and used knife on him and ran away from village. He got settled as an astrologer. After many years, the man who was injured by him came to him in search of the man who tried to kill him. Anticipating the danger that was to come on him, he diverted his mind with his words.
Similar end we can find in Dial 000. Doug was diverted by Govinda with his hostile talk and was stopped from committing suicide.
Various reasons for the youth to get depressed:
Depression is an extremely complex disease. It occurs for a variety of reasons.
Many young people suffer from mental depression due to a variety of different things they face in our modern world. As we know mental health is very necessary to do any kind of work, so depression is a great problem for youth. Youth are the pillars of the society and nation. If the y themselves suffers then what support and reassurance can he give to others?
It is important for everyone to be concerned about this widespread problem in youth. Once, I heard from my teacher that three of his friends committed suicide due to depression at the age of twenty-two. From this, we come to realize how deeply young people are getting depressed in this competitive modern world. In Nepal, out of every four youth one is mentally ill or depressed. However, they can’t express the reason of depression to others and, therefore, cannot solve their problem and become depressed day by day.
Now let us know some of the main reasons for mental depression.
Tense house: some homes are so tense that no one would want to live there. There is always quarrelling between parents which cause members of that house, especially teenagers and children, to mentally suffer very much. This results in depression and they become vulnerable to drugs and other dangers.
Unhealthy competition is one of the main reasons for youth to be depressed. In this modern world, there is competition in every field, there is less change to get the job or scholarship or any other thing. If they don’t get these things, they become depressed. So young people should be kept away from unhealthy competition.
Low self-esteem is often flagged as a predictor of adolescent depression. This claim is supported by longitudinal research which shows that children who perceive themselves as academically, socially, or physically incompetent are more vulnerable to subsequent depression than or children who perceive themselves as competent.
Conflict in mind:
Youth become mentally depressed due to conflicts in their minds. Generally a young person’s mind is in constant dilemma. They fall into uncertainties and anxiousness when it comes time to choose the right field. For ex: After finishing the high school, they must choose the subject for higher study, and if they can’t choose right subject they become frustrated in their future.
In short adversity and deprivation are risk factors for depression, either directly or indirectly because they engender the negative and pessimistic thinking that turns surmountable negative happenings into the defeats that produce depression.
These are some of the reasons that youth become depressed. Every class in our societies should be concerned about the causes of depression in youth. We have to help them to come out of their depression and frustration and live normal lives and do creative work, which is beneficial for all.
Different measures which the parents, teachers, and peers can take to avoid depression and disappointment in youth.
1. The primary responsibility is in the hands of parents. They know their child’s psychology and nature. So they should understand their child’s mentality and should bring reassurance in them. Then only a child can come out easily from depression and frustration.
Understanding the Text: Main ideas
1.Laughter and Bells of happiness constantly rang from house no.22
2.The inmates of House no.22 were always together and joyful.
3.It was a happy family and it had drawn a rainbow of happiness on the street.
4.The narrator got a chance to pull himself beside Mr X from house no.22 without any congestion charge.
5.Mr.Karan Patel was a fine Indian gentleman who held a prestigious Chief executive position in an American Company.
6. He wanted bring up his daughter on his own.
7. Meera loved eating bananas and Patong in Thai means ‘the forest filled with banana leave’. So Meera had chosen Patong beach located in Phuket.
8.Her mom said to her that she was missing both of them and wanted them to be with her; but the time was not right.
9. Tsunami, a giant monstrous wave about thirty feet high consumed the earth.
10. A young girl of about thirteen years was lying on the bed next to Karan Patel.
11. Karan Patel found his daughter in Kamala Beach.
12. The religion of Munira was Islamic.
13. The religion of Karan Patel and his family was Hinduism.
Looking at language: vocabulary by Phrasal verb( page no.125)
1. Moved into – take possession of new house
Ex: Victoria moved in with her new boy friend.
2. Pull up- Come to a halt
Ex: he pulled up outside the cottage.
3. Brought up- to bring up
She was partly brought up by her maternal grandparents.
4. Make of- Make something into
Cricket bats are made of willow.
5. Look for- attempt to find
Ravi is looking for you.
6. Get up- rise
Get up early in the morning.
7. Rushed off- be very busy.
8. Ran down: reduce in size
Ex: the battery has run down.
9. Looked up: He looked her up when he was in his area.
Literary Concept: Theme(Page no: 127)
1.Yes, I agree with Mrs.Wellington words . The three of them were always together and joyful and had drawn a rainbow of happiness in their street.
2. Premonition means a strong feeling that something is about to happen especially something unpleasant. Premonition has give prior intimation to Karen Patel that unavoidable situation is going to happen but they may turn up safely.
3. It’s Happy New Year to Karen Patel as it has given him new life to him and to his daughter and added a new member in his family.
4.‘Tsunami Religion’ differs from common man’s notion of religion and religious beliefs. It creates a society where there is no place for caste, creed, and religion and people of this society work together with coordination and cooperation.
5.Act of adopting Munira is a spontaneous reaction. Munira was a girl of thirteen years who lost her family members in Tsunami. Mr.Karan Patel was also separated from his only daughter from Tsuanmi. During this time, he came across Munira who was next to his bed and weeping continuously for her helpless situation. Mr. Karan had found resemblances of his daughter in her and his heart felt both for his daughter and Munira. When he found his daughter and Munira in Kamala beach, he decided to adopt Munira and treat her as his own daughter.
6. He had understood the true meaning of life. After the death of his wife, he searched happiness in his daughter and decided to bring uup Meera on his own. Ever after the tragic happening of Tsunami , he did not lose his will and with confidence he searched for his daughter. He learned to live cheerfully and joyfully.
7. Yes, we support the decision taken by Mr.Karan Patel. If he had remarried , he would have concentrated on new and he would have neglected his daughter. The personality of a child does not depend either she is brought up by a single parent or both but it depends upon the affection and concentration they show on baby.
8.It enhance our religious and social values.
It gives us an opportunity for re-union of family members and friends.
9. People of Thailand are sympathetic to the victims of disaster.
Two instances that exhibit the sympathetic attitude of the people of Thailand-
a) Karan was helped by the volunteers in search of his daughter.
b) His daughter was taken care by the volunteers and they were eagerly trying to pass on the information to her relations.
10.The area was effected badly by Tsunami. Houses were flattened and people were scavenging through leftovers. Only little remained to cater the needs of the survivors.
11.If I was Karen Patel, I would have done the same. Religion, caste and creed are the walls built by mankind. One should not confine oneself to these boundaries.
Literary Concepts: Simile.(page no- 132)
1. Simile is a figure of speech that describes something by comparing or establishing its similarity to something else. Some examples with their meanings:
1. As cool as cucumber – cool headed.
2.As gentle as lamb – Gentle- non reactive.
3.To drink like fish - to drink a lot.
4.To sleep like a log - to sleep soundly.
5. As wise as an owl - very wise.
Literary Concepts: Personification (Page -132)
1. The alarm clock screams at me every morning.
2. Art is a jealous mistress.
3. The sun was playing hide and seek with the clouds.
4.My computer hates to do my homework
5.Season off mists and mellow fruitfulness close bosom- friends of the maturing sun(Ode to Autumn)
Literary Concepts: Metaphor(page -132)
1.Expressions like ‘angel’ and ‘puppet’ convey his affection for his daughter. It takes time for Mr.KaranPatel to use such expressions to Munira as she is not his own daughter and adopted by him after the devastating situation.
1.She is shocked and preoccupied with the pain of Munira.
2. The short story titled ‘Man from Kabul’ by Rabindra Nath Tagore is similar to this story. In ‘Man from Kabul’ , there was a man known as Kabuliwallah. He had left his family behind in Afghanistan to make his way through life and during this time he began longing to see his daughter. Then one day he came across a young girl named Mini whom he felt resembled his daughter and become attached.
In ‘Tsunami Religion’ Karan Patel had lost his daughter in disaster for sometime and during this time he came across Munira who was separated from her family members. Karan had seen his daughter in Munira and got attached to her and so he adopted her .
3.Human relationships always help us to carry on because they always presuppose further developments. This world is a huge stage and we all people are the actors playing own roles. We people do not leave our natural life rather always in constrain of relationship and bound to act accordingly. And this constrain is a bond, binds all persons together. Mrs. Anjali Prashar has brought out clearly this emotionally sensitive relations in her essay ‘Tsunami Religion’
This story brings out the lovely attachment between daughter and father and it shows how that affection culminated in creating new bond. Karan, a fine Indian gentleman, held a position of an executive officer in American Company. His wife died from a brain tumour . He decided not to remarry and brought up Meera on his own. Then he was separated from his only daughter for some days in disaster. During this time, he happened to meet Munira, who resembles like his daughter. His heart had melt for Munira. Even after he was reunited with his daughter, he adopted Munira and treated her as his own daughter.